Asilomar, a wireless ad-hoc network simulator developed by UC-Berkely , has attracted much attention in academia and industry. The simulator demonstrates the real-time replication of interactive data with original streaming rates, using a fully synchronized network model. The simulator is specific to ad-hoc wireless networks and does not simulate mobility, but simulates a stationary and static environment. Asilomar's general model comprises two parts. First, it is a directed graph that captures the layout of the network. In turn, the directed graph is comprised of a collection of nodes, each of which represents a physical device. The physical layer in the simulator is based on point-to-point single frequency (tone) communication.
Davida  present a scheme for spanning tree construction for ad-hoc wireless networks using a pre-specified collection of piconets formed in a star topology. In practice, piconets are not formed in a single star topology when there is a wide coverage area or many piconets. Hence, errors can occur in this stage and complicated recoveries are needed. To overcome the issue, Davida propose a distributed spanning tree construction scheme using the concept of cluster, that is a collection of piconets with some of the basic properties inherited from the full network. The algorithm contains three mechanisms: one for detecting piconets formation, the second for detecting faults in communication links and, the third for finding a new spanning tree for recovering the network. A simulation test against real-time processing scenario shows that it decreases the retransmission distance.
Nuchter  presented a fully distributed multicast group management and spanning tree protocol named DMSG using an efficient data structure called the local tree structure LT. DMSG promotes a fully distributed approach to multi-cast routing in an ad-hoc network with a minimum of topology information. The local tree structure is formed in order to maintain a minimal tree in an ad-hoc network. DMSG uses the concept of degree of membership to find the members of a multicast group. The following table explains the degree of membership: 7211a4ac4a